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FROM ABOVE - Here's an aerial photo of the Sphinx and Temples showing the Sphinx (facing east), the Sphinx Temple just in front, the 'granite lined' Valley Temple (it used to have an open air court on top), the many tombs and offering temples to the south (left), the restored section of the causeway connecting it with the 2nd pyramid, the erosion on the west wall of the Sphinx enclosure, and a restored temple (angled to the Sphinx's left paw).
More than 4000 years ago, it is believed, masons quarried huge blocks from the limestone bedrock around and in front of the Sphinx.
The road was later used by the Romans and is believed to have been renovated by the Ptolemic Queen Cleopatra, who left her cartouche, an inscribed hieroglyphic.
Artifacts can be dated using different types of methods."Radiocarbon dating" is a well known method that determines the age of an artifact by using its carbon 14 content. A scientist measures how much carbon 14 there is in a specimen and compares that to the same specimen but to one that is alive.
Egyptologists believe them to have been built by the 4th Dynasty Pharaoh Khafre. Flinders Petrie called it "Granite Lined" because some time after the walls were made of huge (monolithic) limestone blocks, builders added a layer of giant granite blocks inside and out.
The east facing front of the "Granite Lined Valley Temple" with the second pyramid in the background. Notice the two paved walkways extending due east from the two entrances to the temple.
The sphinxes were inscribed with the name Nectabo I, the founder of the last Pharaonic dynasty who died in 362 BC. "This discovery marks the first time that archaeology has revealed this route, which is mentioned in many ancient texts," the statement said.
The expedition had already unearthed much of the Kabash path, also known as Sphinx Alley, which was built by the prodigiously wealthy Pharaoh Amenhotep III, who ruled about 3,400 years ago, to connect the vast Karnak temple in ancient Thebes to the Luxor Temple.
Typology in archaeology is the result of classification based on physical characteristics such as the material, colour and size.