Yet another form, called amorphous carbon, has no crystalline structure.Other forms—such as coke—are sometimes called amorphous, but X-ray examination has revealed that these substances do possess a low degree of crystallinity.Fulgentius, bishop of Ecija, welcomed the refugees and the relics, and gave the chest containing the Sudarium to Leandro, bishop of Seville. In 657 it was moved to Toledo, then in 718 on to northern Spain to escape the advancing Moors.

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On 14 March 1075, King Alfonso VI, his sister and Rodrigo Diaz Vivar (El Cid) opened the chest after days of fasting.

The event was recorded on a document preserved in the Capitular Archives at the Cathedral of San Salvador in Oviedo.

In order to avoid destruction in the invasion, it was taken away first to Alexandria by the presbyter Philip, then carried through northern Africa when Khosrau II conquered Alexandria in 616 AD and arrived in Spain shortly thereafter.

The Sudarium entered Spain at Cartagena, along with people who were fleeing from the Persians.

Carbon is the cosmic product of the “burning” of helium, in which three helium nuclei, atomic number 4, fuse to produce a carbon nucleus, atomic number 12.

In the crust of Earth, elemental carbon is a minor component.

However, carbon compounds (i.e., carbonates of magnesium and calcium) form common minerals (e.g., magnesite, dolomite, marble, or limestone).

Coral and the shells of oysters and clams are primarily calcium carbonate.

Diamond and graphite occur naturally on Earth, and they also can be produced synthetically; they are chemically inert but do combine with oxygen at high temperatures, just as amorphous carbon does.

Fullerene was serendipitously discovered in 1985 as a synthetic product in the course of laboratory experiments to simulate the chemistry in the atmosphere of giant stars.

This is an informational tour in which students gain a basic understanding of geologic time, the evidence for events in Earth’s history, relative and absolute dating techniques, and the significance of the Geologic Time Scale.