Although many of these first European and American setters were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics.Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840.

Following the Civil War—and in the wake of the Second Industrial Revolution—Indianapolis experienced tremendous growth and prosperity.

In 1880, Indianapolis was the world's third largest pork packing city, after Chicago and Cincinnati, and the second largest railroad center in the United States by 1888.

The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the Mc Cormick or Pogue families.

The Mc Cormicks are generally considered to be the first permanent settlers; however, some historians believe George Pogue and family may have arrived first, on March 2, 1819, and settled in a log cabin along the creek that was later called Pogue's Run.

Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council.

In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council.

A combined county and town government continued until 1832 when Indianapolis incorporated as a town.

Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847.

Under the mayoral administration of Richard Lugar, the city and county governments restructured, consolidating most public services into a new entity called Unigov.